…let freedom ring / march on washington

…let freedom ring

Slavery had a long tradition in the USA. It officially ended on 18 December 1865, after the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified and successfully added to the constitution. As of that moment black people were granted citizen status, the men were given voting rights and the age of slavery was officially and legally over.

Throughout generations most americans have been living under the impression that black people were not as intelligent, not worthy of any salary let alone the same and generally speaking of lesser quality. After 1865, slave owners saw it as if they were deprived of their property, and slave traders were suddenly prosecuted for a crime they claimed to not understand. For decades and longer, black citizens were therefore often underpaid, would be denied jobs with high economic or political influence, would be denied higher education and were unable to rent houses or apartments in decent areas. The social and economic separation between black and white would remain for almost a century and see only little progress.

In the early 1960s A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin started to organize a cooperation of civil rights, labor and religious organizations. They wanted to accumulate as much people for a demonstration in Washington DC at the Lincoln Memorial. The main theme was “freedom and jobs”. On wednesday 28 August 1963 an estimated 250.000 people participated in what is generally known as, “The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom”, “The March on Washington” or the “The Great March on Washington”.

The primary objective of this rally was to overcome the discrimination of black people in civil and economic rights issues, through raising public awareness and help passing legislation. In the early 1960s a set of laws, known as Jim Crow Laws, has been passed that heavily discriminated and helped to oppress black people. Depending on the state and region, social discrimination was so huge that because of violence and intimidation it sometimes was made impossible for them to vote. Interracial marriage was prohibited in 21 states.

In 1963 Randolph, James Farmer (president of the Congress of Racial Equality), John Lewis (chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee), Martin Luther King Jr. (president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference), Roy Wilkins (president of the NAACP) and Whitney Young (president of the National Urban League). Together with Bayard Rustin the group agreed on these specific goals of the march:

  • Passage of meaningful civil rights legislation
  • Immediate elimination of school segregation
  • A program of public works, including job training, for the unemployed
  • A Federal law prohibiting discrimination in public or private hiring
  • A $2-an-hour minimum wage nationwide
  • Withholding Federal funds from programs that tolerate discrimination
  • Enforcement of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution by reducing congressional representation from States that disenfranchise citizens
  • A broadened Fair Labor Standards Act to currently excluded employment areas
  • Authority for the Attorney General to institute injunctive suits when constitutional rights are violated

The events schedule was partitioned as follows:

  1. The National Anthem – led by Camilla Williams (originally Marian Anderson was scheduled, but couldn´t make it in time)
  2. Invocation – by Reverend Patrick O´Boyle; Archbishop of Washington
  3. Opening Remarks – Philip A. Randolph; Director of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
  4. Remarks – Dr. Eugene Carson Blake; Stated Clerk, United Presbyterian Church of the USA; Vice Chairman, Commission on Race Relations of the National Council of Churches of Christ in America
  5. Tribute to Negro Women Fighters for Freedom – Daisy Bates (originally Mrs. Medgar Evers was scheduled to talk, but missed her flight); led by Bayard Rustin introducing Daisy Bates, Diane Nash Bevel, Mrs. Medgar Evers, Mrs. Herbert Lee, Rosa Parks, Gloria Richardson;
  6. Remarks – John Lewis; National Chairman, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee;
  7. Remarks – Walter Reuther; President United Automobile, Aerospace and and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, AFL-CIO; Chairman, Industrial Union Department, AFL-CIO;
  8. Remarks – James Farmer; National Director, Congress of Racial Equality;
  9. Selection – Eva Jessye; Choir
  10. Prayer – Rabbi Uri Miller; President Synagogue Council of America;
  11. Remarks – Whitney M. Young, Jr; Executive Director, National Urban League;
  12. Remarks – Mathew Ahmann; Executive Director, National Catholic Conference for Interracial Justice;
  13. Remarks – Roy Wilkins; Executive Secretary, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People;
  14. Selection – Miss Mahalia Jackson;
  15. Remarks – Rabbi Joachim Prinz; President American Jewish Congress;
  16. Remarks – The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr; President Southern Christian Leadership Conference;
  17. The Pledge – A. Philip Randolph
  18. Benediction – Dr. Benjamin E. Mays; President, Morehouse College;

Before and during the event certain difficulties arose. All of which were either taken care of or simply had only little to no effect on the march itself:

  • The sound system that Randolph bought just for the event was sabotaged the night before. It was badly damaged and beyond repair for the demonstrators. Walter E. Fauntroy, who served as the D.C. coordinator contacted Attorney General Robert Kennedy and demanded to have the Sound System fixed. Allegedly he said: “We have a couple of thousand people coming. Do you want a fight here tomorrow after all we have done?” According to Randolph: “We cannot maintain order where people cannot hear“. The US Army Signal Corps repaired the system over night.
  • At the day of the march about 50 members of the American Nazi Party assembled for a counter protest but were quickly scattered by the police.
  • During the months before several activists organizing the march have received bomb threats at their homes and offices. The LA Times headquarters received a bomb threat that would be carried out if they didn´t issue a statement calling the president a “Nigger Lover”.
  • The FBI received calls from a man in Kansas City who claimed to plan to put a bullet in between Dr Martin Luther Kings eyes. The FBI didn´t respond and didn´t deem it necessary to investigate.
  • Roy Wilkins was threatened with assassination in case he didn´t leave the country.

Despite these threats and problems before and during the event, The March on Washington was perceived to be peaceful. Police and reporters said that in the very early moments of the march some people feared an attack or bombing, but later on that feeling and insecurity went away.

The March on Washington, and its organizers are vaguely remembered nowadays. Most famous of course is Dr. Kings “I have a dream” speech. It is however worth mentioning that Bayard Rustin, A. Philip Randolph, the so-called “Negro Women Fighters for Freedom” and others laid the ground work in organizing the event, and that their work made huge impacts on civil rights movements and the legislative process itself. The laws passed in the aftermath of the march were a great help in bringing, and educating the following generations about equality, not only in america but also worldwide.

The Economic Policy Institute launched a series of reports in 2013 around the theme of “The unfinished March”. In these reports it is investigated whether the pledge of the march has been fulfilled, in what way and to what degree. The findings of these reports are devastating as it shows that the goals have not been accomplished in regards to:

  • housing
  • working conditions and salaries
  • education

It was further established that black ghettos are formed and upheld even though necessary legislation has been installed to prevent it. These ghettos often show high unemployment rates, inferior education and therefore perpetuate the problem of inequality and race separation.

But even though that might seem depressing, it is still worth noticing that our general perception, that all humans have the same rights because they are equal, is one that is seldom put to question. In that sense the efforts of the March on Washington have not been in vain, and the ideas formulated in the pledge read by A. Philip Randolph on 28 August 1965 from the Lincoln Memorial have not been forgotten.

…a tail of jesuses

…a tail of jesuses

Most religions have a prophet. Whether most of us know who he is like jesus, or others that only some of us may have heard of like for example joesph smith jr, there are several stories and myths surrounding many of these prophets. Tales that speak of extraordinary deeds. Mohammed rode to the heavens on a winged horse, moses split the red sea and jesus awoke from the dead and, even more important for some, turned water into whine. Those are all very admirable things to do, considering that you were the second guy to tame a pegasus, lead your people to go deep sea fishing while fleeing from annihilation or that you can supply a party with an everlasting supply of alcohol.

Although the last one wasn´t that special. After all several other religions than christianity have adopted a prophet that supposedly had similar abilities like jesus. Here is the list of some of them:

Jesus:

  • palestine, approximately 47 ac – 31 ac
  • born on the 25th of december
  • born of a virgin
  • son of god jehowa
  • had 12 disciples
  • performed miracles
  • awoke from the dead
  • healed the sick and made the blind see again

Mithra:

  • persia, around 1200 bc
  • born on the 25th of december
  • born of a virgin
  • had 12 disciples
  • performed miracles
  • awoke from the dead

Horus:

  • egypt, around 3000 bc
  • born of a virgin
  • son of god osiris
  • had 12 disciples
  • performed miracles
  • awoke from the dead
  • healed the sick and made the blind see again

dionysos:

  • greece, around 500 bc
  • born of a virgin
  • son of god zeuss
  • performed miracles
  • awoke from the dead

…Monsignor Lemaître vs Pope Pius XII

…Monsignor Lemaître vs Pope Pius XII

George Lemaître was a belgian catholic priest who lived from 17 July 1984 to 20 June 1966. Lemaître, even though he was an ordained priest in the catholic church, devoted his life mostly to the studies of physics, especially astronomy.

In 1927 he published his paper “A homogeneous Universe of constant mass and growing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extragalactic nebulae” in the magazine Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels”. The paper applied Albert Einsteins theory of general relativity to cosmology for the first time, formulating that our universe began with a giant explosion, and since then keeps on expanding.

Lemaître was the very first one that published such an observation, predating Hubbles first publications by 2 years. His theory also included what is known today as Hubbles law, and even estimated the value of the now known Hubbles constant. Given the low reach of the magazine he published his paper in, he was little known to the science community back then. Only an article published by his teacher and mentor Arthur Eddington commenting on his theory, would bring a higher publicity to his theory and to him as a scientist.

Even though he was a priest, he never seemed to be torn between his scientific findings and his faith. After all, he always kept looking for what he called the “Cosmic Egg” or “Primeval Atom”. A structure, particle or condition that predates our universe and delivered all necessary energy and or particles to create it. In his mind a creator or god could have created the cosmic egg that ultimately lead to the creation of the universe with all its properties as we know it today. When asked by pope PIUS XII, whether this theory would prove the existence of god, and whether the church should make it official doctrine so that everybody should believe in it, he allegedly recommended to keep science distinct from faith. It is unclear in what way this discussion took place between Lemaître and the pope, and whether it was a heated argument or a friendly chat. It is assumed that after a while both parties agreed that science shouldn´t interfere in faith, as well as faith shouldn´t interfere in science. In that context George Lemaître proves perfectly that faith and science can easily coexist, and just because we believe in one god, many gods or none, we can take scientific facts for what they are and faith for what it is.

He was elected a member of the “Pontifical Academy of Sciences” in 1936, and served as its president from 1960 until his death. He died on the 20th of June 1966, shortly after having learned about the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which provided crucial evidence supporting his theory, known today as the Big Bang Theory.

…the Jerusalem Syndrome

…the jerusalem syndrome

Jerusalem is and has been the center of interest and belief for the largest religions on earth. Tourists and believers alike travel and pilgrimage to the city where solomon supposedly built his temple, jesus dragged the cross through the via dolorosa and muhammad landed after his night journey from mecca, riding a winged horse. The city has been in the center of all 3 beliefs and has brought peace to their followers as an anchor and playground for each respective mythology. On the other hand it has been torn by struggles over supposedly holy land and buildings.

The jerusalem syndrome is based upon the idea that some visitors of the holy city experience an intense religious psychosis that resolves quickly after departure. The condition was first formulated in the 1930s by jerusalem psychiatrist heinz herman and while this sort of behavior has been recorded in other, mostly religiously important places and cities like rome or mecca, incidents in jerusalem have drawn more attention due to the cities special situation.

In essence there are 3 types: type 1 and 2 are basically saying that people with preexisting conditions are freaking out when they´re in town, which seems unsurprising. The third type however says that undiagnosed and sane people enter the city limits and suddenly and out of thin air show the following symptoms: anxiety, agitation, nervousness and tension plus other unspecified reactions, the desire to split away from the group to explore jerusalem alone, compulsive bathing and showering, the obsession of being pure and clean, the need to wear a toga often made out of the hotel room bedlinen, prophetlike behavior, roaming through the streets and reciting or shouting psalms verses and hymns, delivering a sermon in a holy place.

An american tourist was so overwhelmed that he stayed, learned hebrew and is walking through the streets pretending to be king david ever since. From 1980 to 1993 admissions to the kfar shaul mental health centre were counted and analyzed. In that time frame around 1200 tourists have been diagnosed, 470 of which had to be treated clinically. Out of an average 3 and a half million visitors each year about 100 show symptoms and around 40 of those have to be admitted to a hospital. When seen proportional and in comparison with other cities, these numbers are quite normal and average. At least in this respect jerusalem is not that different from other cities.

…the age of decadence

…the age of decadence

Sir John Bagot Glubbs book „The fate of empires and search for survival“ deals with the rise and decline of empires throughout our recorded history. His theory states that each empire has roughly the duration of 10 generations or 250 years during this time each empire would go through 6 stages that he identified as follows:

  • the age of pioneers (outburst)
  • the age of conquests
  • the age of commerce
  • the age of affluence
  • the age of intellect
  • the age of decadence

Our empire has now reached its last stage before the final breakup. Throughout the 5 previous stages we have identified central driving character trades rising and declining. Great prosperity and intellectual awareness have led to great financial wealth. Even though a disparity between rich and poor is clearly visible most people are covered for at least their basic needs. Infrastructure is widely available and accessible. Cities are glowing sparks of cultural political and social life and prosperity. A shared consensus throughout the largest parts of the population is the physical, financial and moral strength and confidence of the race. Even though most people earn money for their own sake it is generally agreed that a portion of which has to be shared. The result of which include but are not limited to the following:

  • students receive government grants for basic and higher education
  • health care is subsidized and regulated
  • financially weak people receive support

Typically our nations wealth exceeds that of the surrounding countries. It has long been established that financial and intellectual strength are a measurement for a strong human race, therefore it is widely perceived, if not always outspoken and discussed as such, that most other races are inferior to oneself. Aid programs granted to other nations or undeveloped countries are often a sign of class difference and a chance to prove superiority. Incidentally it is generally perceived that moral and ethic high ground can be bought rather than earned, ultimately proving the weak back bone of society and the illusion through which the concept of a master race is nourished.

The idea of a never fading always prosperous and victorious state leads to a high degree of frivolity. In many different ways the obsession with celebrities in the areas of art, sports, music, cooking and many others, a bloated government system that employs an unusually large portion of the population, an extreme devaluation of the currency, public depictions of extreme wealth, an obsession with sex.

How and when an empire ended is sometimes hard to define. Some of them crashed and dissolved in violence from within, others were conquered and swallowed by other strong nations, or declined gradually over a longer period of time and broke into pieces one by one. For all of these we can state that the problem was systemic, favoring growth over sustainability.

The decadence of each system however does not extend to the physical realm of the individual. The single human can still show extreme endurance and devotion towards the motherland. During the first world war many british soldiers have left their homes to fight for their country out of conviction and not out of the need to make money. As sir john glubb himself so fittingly puts it:

“Decadence is a moral and spiritual disease, resulting from too long a period of wealth and power. Producing cynicism, decline of religion, pessimism and frivolity the citizens of such a nation will no longer make an effort to save themselves because they are not convinced that anything in life is worth saving.”

Sir john bagot glubb identified and studied various empires. All of them came to power and ended in very different circumstances. Similarities and parallels are hard to define and extract. Different scientific standards, religions and historical customs alone make for very different starting positions for all of these. Nevertheless is it worth mentioning that certain human characteristics follow the same patterns in most civilized cultures and therefore it can be said that these vague outlines of the rise and decline of an empire are generally true for the following

  • assyria 859 – 612 bc / 247 years
  • persia 538 – 330 bc / 208 years
  • greece 331 – 100 bc / 231 years
  • roman republic 260 – 27 bc / 233 years
  • roman empire 27 bc – 180 ad / 207 years
  • arab empire 634 – 880 / 246 years
  • mameluke empire 1250 – 1517 / 267 years
  • ottoman empire 1320 – 1570 / 250 years
  • spain 1500 – 1750 / 250 years
  • romanov russia 1682 – 1916 / 234 years
  • britain 1700 – 1950 / 250 years

…the age of intellect

…the age of intellect

Sir John Bagot Glubbs book „The fate of empires and search for survival“ deals with the rise and decline of empires throughout our recorded history. His theory states that each empire has roughly the duration of 10 generations or 250 years during this time each empire would go through 6 stages that he identified as follows:

  • the age of pioneers (outburst)
  • the age of conquests
  • the age of commerce
  • the age of affluence
  • the age of intellect
  • the age of decadence

Throughout the ages of commerce and affluence, the nation has amassed an astonishing amount of money and valuable goods like real estate, collections of art and partial or full ownership of companies and organizations. Wealth is more or less evenly distributed and even the poorer parts of society have, for the most part, a stable income that allows sufficient supply of food and proper housing. The higher the surplus of wealth, the more a society will be able to fund education, schools, colleges and training centers of all sorts.

While during the age of conquest, schools and colleges mostly dealt with military education, during the age of commerce and affluence schools and colleges have shifted to trade and production related topics that would be the driving engine for the economy. The respective system would also provide tools of measurement to assess success. During the age of intellect the number of places for education increases dramatically as well as the amount of topics that can be studied and researched. The pursuit of knowledge receives a very high priority, and younger generations growing up in these surroundings increasingly urge to acquire academic honors, the new measurement of success.

The age of intellect is marked by astonishing advances in natural science, philosophy, politics as well as great discussions and debates about the same. Discourse provides a relevant and necessary tool to advance and test hypotheses and through this discourse intellectual, scientific and political communities are formed and established. Debates are often carried out in newspapers or any form of public forums. Coming out on top of a discussion represents a significant and desired success. Debaters often have the debate itself at heart rather than trying to find a conclusion for the discussed problem. The more depth discussions gain over time the less will the debating parties yield in their opinion. Issues are rarely resolved and arguments usually do not lead to agreement. Political gaps are subsequently increased and promoted which leads to an intensification of internal political struggle and hatred. These indifferences keeps the society occupied with itself and often leads to oversights in identifying disintegrating problems, be they internal or external.

During the age of conquest, commerce and affluence our society has gained a wide variety of different ethnic groups and is very colorful. Even though these groups have led their lives right next to each other for several generations in relative peace, the differences between them are still easily visible. Several characteristics can be identified in terms of how divided the different ethnic groups still are. The basic human nature and moral principles often differ greatly from each other and even though all the different races that form the nation stand united in good and affluent times, this feeling of unity doesn´t hold up in times of crisis. Immigrants often tend to form smaller communities that are unlikely to mix with the native population. The races or ethnic groups that have ben assimilated during the age of conquest tend to remember their defeat throughout the generations and may demand separation or independence the further the nation regresses.

Throughout the age of intellect the state looses its integrity. While science, philosophy, education and wealth see considerable advancement, social structures start to fall apart. Disagreement and the lack of a universal purpose disintegrate the societies solidarity and lead to the final chapter in our nations history the age of decadence.

…age of affluence

…the age of affluence

Sir John Bagot Glubbs book „The fate of empires and search for survival“ deals with the rise and decline of empires throughout our recorded history. His theory states that each empire has roughly the duration of 10 generations or 250 years during this time each empire would go through 6 stages that he identified as follows:

  • the age of pioneers (outburst)
  • the age of conquests
  • the age of commerce
  • the age of affluence
  • the age of intellect
  • the age of decadence

Our empire has acquired immense amounts of wealth. Money stands in the middle of everything and determines most peoples daily lives. Values and driving factors like courage, honor and sense of duty slowly deteriorate and disappear. New born generations are faced with the requirement to exceed others in earning money. A rising part of new pupils guided by the parents is choosing courses that allow them to earn higher salaries. The need to achieve a higher score often leads to a world view that allows the goal to justify the means. Slowly morals and ethic ground rules are put into question, are being watered up and loose significance. Foreign policy is often altered from an aggressive to a pragmatic approach. Enemies might be bought off rather than fought off, making the militarys primary goal the defense of the nation.

Since the nation is most likely inherently more wealthy than the surrounding states, the fear of loosing what is owned is greater than the prospect of acquiring new assets. To retain rather than conquer seems to be the main principal. This change in concept also leads to a change in philosophy. The conception that it is immoral and uncivilized to conquer other countries for personal gain is widely accepted and grows.

Occasionally economic and trade related binds to neighbor states are a determining factor in the search for a peaceful solution. As it would hurt business the reluctance to fight often also leads to a certain degree of disarmament. The transition from the age of commerce to the age of affluence represents the peak of the nation in many ways. Morally stable military, strong, wealthy and proud, outside observers often fail to notice the smoldering decay of morals, growing greed for money and the general change from service to selfishness that lead through the age of affluence to the age of intellect.

…comey as you are

…comey as you are

James Comey was the head of the FBI from September 4th 2013 and was fired by President Donald Trump on May 9th 2017. During the presidential campaign 2016 the FBI was investigating an alleged russian involvement that was aimed towards obstructing the democratic presidential election. During the investigation numerous people have been reviewed, including some of the staff members of the Trump campaign. After being inaugurated, and even before that, Trump allegedly tried to influence Comey so he would shut down investigations about his staff members. Comey had taken meticulous notes of his meetings with Trump. Comey offered to testify and make a public statement about the content and nature of his meetings with Trump. On June 8th 2017 he appeared before the Senate Intelligence Committee to testify, and prepared a public written statement, which you can access using the link at the bottom.

Here are some excerpts and quotes from said statement:

Page 2, middle:

I felt compelled to document my first conversation with the President-Elect in a memo. To ensure accuracy, I began to type it on a laptop in an FBI vehicle outside Trump Tower the moment I walked out of the meeting. Creating written records immediately after one-on-one conversations with Mr. Trump was my practice from that point forward.

Page 2, bottom -3, top:

It was unclear from the conversation who else would be at the dinner, although I assumed there would be others. It turned out to be just the two of us, seated at a small oval table in the center of the Green Room. Two Navy stewards waited on us, only entering the room to serve food and drinks.

Page 3, bottom:

A few moments later, the President said, “I need loyalty, I expect loyalty.” I didn’t move, speak, or change my facial expression in any way during the awkward silence that followed. We simply looked at each other in silence.

Page 4, top:

He then said, “I need loyalty.” I replied, “You will always get honesty from me.” He paused and then said, “That’s what I want, honest loyalty.” I paused, and then said, “You will get that from me.”

Page 5, middle:

He repeated that Flynn hadn’t done anything wrong on his calls with the Russians, but had misled the Vice President. He then said, “I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go. He is a good guy. I hope you can let this go.”

Page 5, bottom:

We concluded it made little sense to report it to Attorney General Sessions, who we expected would likely recuse himself from involvement in Russia-related investigations. (He did so two weeks later.) The Deputy Attorney General’s role was then filled in an acting capacity by a United States Attorney, who would also not be long in the role.

Page 6, middle:

He described the Russia investigation as “a cloud” that was impairing his ability to act on behalf of the country. He said he had nothing to do with Russia, had not been involved with hookers in Russia, and had always assumed he was being recorded when in Russia. He asked what we could do to “lift the cloud.”

Page 7, bottom:

He said he would do that and added, “Because I have been very loyal to you, very loyal; we had that thing you know.” I did not reply or ask him what he meant by “that thing.”

For all those that have questions, need further context or don´t believe these to be quotes, read the document. It is 7 pages long, comprehensibly written and can be found using this link:

Comey-Prepared-Remarks-Testimony

…age of commerce

…age of commerce

Sir John Bagot Glubbs book „The fate of empires and search for survival“ deals with the rise and decline of empires throughout our recorded history. His theory states that each empire has roughly the duration of 10 generations or 250 years during this time each empire would go through 6 stages that he identified as follows:

  • the age of pioneers (outburst)
  • the age of conquests
  • the age of commerce
  • the age of affluence
  • the age of intellect
  • the age of decadence

After the empire has grown and assimilated everything in its way, expansion has stopped. The government now controls a vast land mass. Language, customs and monetary systems have been unified and allow for traders and merchants to reach the complete territory easy and safe. The country is now an umbrella for several cultures and sometimes even expands over more than one climate zone. Goods that have been unavailable before can now be purchased and the production of trade goods starts to get better organized.

The acquisition of wealth is a strong goal even though it is not egocentric impulses but rather the development of the nation that is the driving factor. Education and morals still show the same marks as during the age of conquest. Men are raised to be brave and strong, show no pain and be honest. Honor, duty and pride seem to be the strongest characteristics, defining social behavior and structure.

Development of infrastructure, communication and social systems is driven forward at a very high pace increasing wealth. Social and military safety lead to a rise in arts and luxury. A feeling for status is evolved and so wide streets, tall buildings, big palaces, rich architecture and any number of depictions of wealth slowly come to life. The age of commerce benefits everyone but soon the division between classes becomes more and more visible, wealth and the power of production shift to the rich and super rich initiating the age of affluence.

…the age of conquest

…the age of conquest

Sir John Bagot Glubbs book „The fate of empires and search for survival“ deals with the rise and decline of empires throughout our recorded history. His theory states that each empire has roughly the duration of 10 generations or 250 years during this time each empire would go through 6 stages that he identified as follows:

  • the age of pioneers (outburst)
  • the age of conquests
  • the age of commerce
  • the age of affluence
  • the age of intellect
  • the age of decadence

During the age of conquest a rising empire attacks the surrounding tribes or countries to assimilate or devour them. This leads to a mixture of ethnicity and cultures if a developed civilization is overthrown by a less advanced conqueror. Technology, knowledge, military and administrational traits are absorbed and adjusted.

The rising civilization assimilates and integrates wisdom at an exceptional rate and through their lack of background or education show a high level of improvisation and experiment. A daring initiative and growing organizational skills lead to larger expeditions explorations of land forests and mountains. Glory and honor seem to be driving forces behind all this ambition.

The age of conquest typically ends when natural borders are reached like a great mountain chain a desert or the ocean. Sometimes the attacking armies are stripped too thin already across the shores of the country to defend themselves and therefore stop to expand for logical reasons. Depending on whether the means and knowledge to overcome these natural borders or insufficient troop size exists or not, the new nation has to develop them quickly or stop its expansion. At this point a wide mass of land and or sea has been conquered laws traditions and trade have been unified and eased and the age of conquest leads to the age of commerce.